CISs need to be adaptable and be approached with adaptability to be able to withstand the need for change, exception, improvisation and diversity as collaborations expand, contract, and shift over time. A CIS’s usefulness is built upon two particular features of adaptability: flexibility and reversibility.

  • Be flexible in order to support informed users in evaluating and changing parameters, data flows, and the components of a particular assembly of CIS technologies and practices.
  • Gives users control to improvise and adapt the system to their local requirements (work practices).
  • Support reversibility in order to put into practice the conditions that will facilitate open-ness of design in use rather than closure.
  • Allow stakeholders to negotiate and appropriate what it means to have a good use of technologies.


Introna, L. D. (2007). Maintaining the reversibility of foldings: making the ethics (politics) of information technology visible. Ethics and Information Technology, 9(1), 11–25. [DOI
Jordan, K., and Lynch, M. (1992). The Sociology of a Genetic Engineering Technique: Ritual and Rationality in the Performance of the "Plasmid Prep." In J. Fujimura & A. Clarke (Eds.), The Right Tools for the Job (pp. 77–114). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Waugh, W. L., and Streib, G. (2006). Collaboration and Leadership for Effective Emergency Management. Public Administration Review, 66(s1), 131–140. [DOI] [Link]

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